In this paper we present a series of models, all within the context of a simple two-good economy, which bring out the distinctions among the diﬀerent types of money and ﬁnancial institutions. The models emphasize the physical properties of the economic goods, moneys, and trading systems. Part 1 covers models in which the money is a consumable storable; the economies in Part 2 use durable money, ﬁat money, or credit. Under this framework we are able to successfully contrast the role of private money lenders, banks, bilateral credit systems, and credit clearinghouses. We are also able to model the importance of the bankruptcy or default penalty in supporting the use of ﬁat.
Quint, Thomas and Shubik, Martin, "An Elementary Discussion of Commodity Money, Fiat Money and Credit: Part 1" (2004). Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers. 1731.