1960 to 1980 doubling (21% to 41%) of black children in one-parent families emerged from 1940-to-1970 urbanization converging population toward urbanized blacks’ historically stable high rate, not post-1960 welfare liberalization or deindustrialization. Urban and rural child socializations structured diﬀerent Jim Crow Era black family formations. Agrarian economic enclaves socialized conformity to Jim Crow and two-parent families; urban enclaves rebellion, male joblessness, and destabilized families. Proxying urban/rural residence at age 16 for socialization location, logistic regressions on sixties census data conﬁrm the hypothesis. Racialized urban socialization negatively aﬀected two-parent family formation and poverty status of blacks but not whites.
Jaynes, Gerald David, "A Behavioral Interpretation of the Origins of African American Family Structure" (2018). Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers. 109.